The causes of famine

London CNN The world is facing multiple famines of "biblical proportions" in just a matter of months, the UN has said, warning that the coronavirus pandemic will push an additional million people to the brink of starvation. More Videos Nigerian citizen: I prefer to die from Covid than hunger. Inside a Covid maternity ward. See year-old coronavirus survivor celebrated by hospital staff. For many here, Covid is the least of their concerns. Here's why.

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Video shows overcrowded Christmas market in city hit hard by Covid Famines could take hold in "about three dozen countries" in a worst-case scenario, the executive director of the World Food Programme WFP said in a stark address on Tuesday. Ten of those countries already have more than 1 million people on the verge of starvation, he said. He cited conflict, an economic recession, a decline in aid and a collapse in oil prices as factors likely to lead to vast food shortagesand urged swift action to avert disaster.

The WFP had already warned that would be a devastating year for numerous countries ravaged by poverty or war, with million people facing crisis levels of hunger or worse. Their updated projections nearly double that number. Read More. The coronavirus pandemic could threaten global food supply, UN warns. When added to the million people already chronically hungry, that scenario would push more than 1 billion people into dire situations. The agency identified 55 countries most at risk of being plunged into famine in its annual report on food crises, released this week, warning that their fragile healthcare systems will be unable to cope with the impact of the virus.

Most of those countries have so far been spared the worst of the coronavirus pandemic, with the epicenter moving from China to Europe to North America, but the state of their healthcare institutions means even relatively small outbreaks could be devastating.

To date, more than 2.Famine exacerbates the challenges of people in poverty and pulls many into the cycle of poverty. This is especially problematic in Africa. Among other nations, famines have been identified in EthiopiaSomalia and South Sudan. The following are three causes of famine in Africa.

When a government is engaged in war, whether civil or with another country, the leadership of a country must divert funds from some sectors to military expenditure.

In some cases, funding is removed from development, leaving the population especially vulnerable to natural disasters or the effects of conflict on agricultural production. When a natural disaster—such as drought—affects a region, the problem can quickly transform into a famine, and the local and national government are left without the funding to address the problem. Natural disasters can also lead to competition over scarce resources, which cause conflict and high levels of food insecurityor famine.

Climate change directly affects food production, which can create widespread food insecurity and famine. For instance, rising temperatures reduces crop yields by reducing photosynthesis and soil fertility.

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Higher temperatures, too, increase the survival rate of weeds and diseases that reduce agricultural output. Increased rainfall and droughts destroy cropland and prevent production entirely. Extreme variation in weather and intense affects of climate change such as rising temperatures, rainfall and droughts prevent farmers from making accurate predictions regarding agricultural seasons.

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This, in turn, affects the output of food from farmers, which increases food insecurity. High food insecurity both motivates conflict, as mentioned before, and increases the likelihood of famine.

the causes of famine

Because of alternative political interests, such as addressing infectious diseases or donating to another part of the world, donor countries can fail to give aid to prevent famine.

Had the international community responded, a quarter of a million people could have avoided death. The Guardian argues that United States geopolitical interest in Somalia in led to a withdrawal of aid, which aided a growing famine.

It was only after widespread media attention of the famine that Somalia received a significant amount of humanitarian aid and was able to appropriately deal with the crisis. While humanitarian aid can alleviate the consequences of famine, removing aid at the wrong time can also be one of the causes of famine in Africa. The three causes of famine listed above is far from a comprehensive list of causes of famine in Africa.

the causes of famine

In fact, the causes of famine are complex and often have several causes contributing to both the initiation and rapid spread of famine. Aside from conflict, climate change and lack of international response, lack of response from the domestic government and rising prices of food also potentially contribute to famine.

Clearly, the causes range from local, to international, to natural or environmental. Beginning to understand even some of the causes of famine, though, contribute to solving part of the causes and preventing as widespread of problems in the future. Blog - Latest News. Conflict Causes Hunger in Africa When a government is engaged in war, whether civil or with another country, the leadership of a country must divert funds from some sectors to military expenditure.The main causes of famine include both environmental and political factors.

the causes of famine

While the vast majority of famines throughout history have been caused by unexpected environmental difficulties, many have been caused by political mismanagement. In more recent history, famines have commonly been caused by regional strife and misallocation of resources by totalitarian governments. Some of the most notorious famines of the 20th century were caused by overtly political actions.

According to Slate, the Great Chinese Famine of to was a direct result of leader Mao Zedong's disastrous "Great Leap Forward" campaign, an attempt to rapidly transition the country from an agrarian to industrial society.

Similarly, the Ukrainian "Holodomor" of towhich killed between 2. Even the Irish Potato Famine of toostensibly caused by the crop disease potato blight, was greatly aggravated by the governmental policies of the British, Ireland's colonial rulers. Recent famines in many African countries are also examples of a confluence of political and environmental factors whereby droughts were often exacerbated by political discord and poor government policy.

The Irish Potato Famine (1845–1852)

Political factors aside, many famines have been caused mainly by environmental factors. From droughts to overly long rainy seasons and plant diseases, most historical famines were caused by factors that were difficult, if not impossible, to prevent.

What Are the Main Causes of Famine? More From Reference. The U.Food insecurity and hunger cause many children to become stunted if not worse due to malnutrition.

This would mean nearly 3 million lives changed for the better. The world produces enough food to feed all 7. Where is the disconnect? Here are 10 of the most popular causes of world hunger — and how you can help. Poverty and hunger exist in a vicious cycle. In turn, undernourishment makes it difficult for people to earn more money so that they can afford healthy food.

Families living in poverty might also sell off their livestock or tools to supplement their income. This buys short-term relief, but perpetuates a longer-term pattern of hunger and poverty that is often passed down from parents to children.

As of7. Poverty often goes hand-in-hand with many of the other causes of hunger on this list — read on for more, or see how you can help now. This leaves families forced to skip one or more meals each day in the period before the next harvest — which could be months away.

Despite global hunger levels falling, one in nine people worldwide still face hunger. Here are the ten hungriest countries according to the Global Hunger Index. War and conflict are also among the leading contributors to world hunger. In South Sudancivil war has led to mass displacement and abandoned fields. The result is crop failure which, combined with a soaring inflation rate that makes imported food unaffordable, has left 6 million people food-insecure.

Countries like Zambia enjoy relative peace and political stability. However, they are also plagued by hunger due to climate extremes. Too much, or too little, rainfall can destroy harvests or reduce the amount of animal pasture available. Extreme climate patterns also tend to affect the poorest regions of the world the most. The World Bank estimates that climate change has the power to push more than million people into poverty over the next decade.

Crops grow on a farm in Niger. In order to thrive, humans need a range of foods providing a variety of essential health benefits. A lack of nutrition is especially important for pregnant and breastfeeding women and young children: Nutrition support during pregnancy and up to the age of five can help protect children for their entire lives. Proper nutrition reduces the likelihood of disease, poor health, and cognitive impairment. Through the LANN project, communities in countries like Sierra Leone are learning how to identify nutrient-rich wild foods that are safe to eat in order to make the most of their available resources.

This is one of the many ways we look for sustainable solutions for malnourished communities. Systemic problems, like poor infrastructure or low investment in agriculture, often prevent food and water from reaching the world populations that need them the most.

Working towards economic stability overall will have a ripple effect on other causes of world hunger cited on this list. Photo: Kieran McConville. Women are on the frontlines of the fight against hungeryet they are frequently underrepresented at the forums where important decisions on policy and resources are made.Famines have been happening for many years and while others believe that it is mainly caused by explosive population growth, many argue that the world has more than enough food for everyone.

Several studies have shown that at present the world can produce enough food for 1. Why then is famine still a problem? The answer lies not just in solving the scarcity of resources but more on tackling the lack of access to them or its unequal distribution mainly because of several man-made factors.

Here are just a few that experts believe eventually lead to global hunger:. In many developing countriesthe absence of proper public infrastructure causes a significant disconnect between an abundant supply and a hungry population.

This is why even in countries with ample natural resources famine is a regular occurrence. Infrastructures are needed to provide people with access to food sources and goods.

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Civil war and conflict are also among the leading causes of world hunger. For instance, In South Sudan, war has caused the displacement of people with many leaving their homes and crops to escape the conflict.

Abandoned fields and the inability to plant crops due to the war disrupting their daily lives means loss of harvest and reduced food sources in an area.

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People who are forced to flee face hunger due to the lack of means to afford necessities. Also, during conflicts and social unrest, markets shut down, cutting people off from their food supply and reducing their access to goods. Corruption hinders public servants from crafting policies to improve the lives of the population and reduces budgets for the improvement of infrastructure needed to give people access to food sources. Instead of allocating funds to alleviate the condition of their people corrupt governments line their pockets with money leaving the masses scrambling to survive and unable to feed their families.

Economic instability pushes families below the poverty line. During this time, people lose jobs and the economy experiences high inflation decreasing the value of money in turn increasing the prices of goods and services. More families become unable to afford necessities.

Access to food becomes limited and many are forced to live off of inadequate sustenance. Severe economic shocks can fuel poverty and in turn, cause hunger and malnutrition. Bad government policies have caused famine in several parts of the world in the past.

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Policies control how resources are used and which strategies are put in place to make sure the people are fed and gain access to food supplies. A mismanaged government and poor government policies cause systemic problems that lead to a lack of investment in agriculture or infrastructure that will give equal and affordable access to food sources. Misplaced priority often leads to food insecurity.

The victims of famine in refugees in Kenya, Ethiopia, and most notably in Somalia which has lost a significant portion of its forests, could have been saved if destruction of the forests in the area was avoided.

Extreme heat, droughts, storms, and floods, as well as other extreme weather conditions, are affecting the quality of water sources, reducing yields of staple crops, and producing an unpredictable harvest.

What Causes Famine?

Rising sea levels cause flooding that not only drown crops but also seep into freshwater sources making it unsafe for people to drink by exposing it to bacteria and other contaminants.

The group believes that the economic problems that will come after the pandemic will cause a humanitarian and food emergency. According to the Global Report on Food Crisesby the UN Food and Agriculture Organisation, around million people globally could be pushed to starvation post-pandemic.

the causes of famine

Due to massive unemployment and underemployment, millions of families will not be able to afford necessities even food so governments need to act fast to mitigate these consequences. Food is one of the basic necessities of survival. Civil war, political conflict, and social unrest are among the leading causes of hunger worldwide. What Is Ecological Succession?Faminesevere and prolonged hunger in a substantial proportion of the population of a region or country, resulting in widespread and acute malnutrition and death by starvation and disease.

Famines usually last for a limited time, ranging from a few months to a few years. They cannot continue indefinitely, if for no other reason than that the affected population would eventually be decimated.

Famines, like wars and epidemicshave occurred from ancient times, achieving biblical proportions not only in biblical times but throughout history.

Examples from the 20th century include the Chinese famine of —61, which resulted in 15—30 million deaths, the Ethiopian famine of —85, which caused approximately 1 million deaths but affected more than 8 million people, and the North Korean famine of roughly —99, which killed an estimated 2. Many famines are precipitated by natural causes, such as droughtflooding, unseasonable cold, typhoonsvermin depredations, insect infestations, and plant diseases such as the blight that caused the Great Famine in Ireland — Although natural factors played a role in most European famines of the Middle Agestheir chief causes were feudal social systems structured upon lords and vassals and population growth, which extended many common food shortages into malnutrition, widespread disease, and starvation.

Medieval Britain was afflicted by numerous famines, and France suffered the effects of 75 or more in the same period. Nor was Russia spared; someRussians died of starvation in The most common human cause of famine is warfare. In addition to destroying crops and food supplies, warfare disrupts the distribution of food through the strategic use of siege and blockade tactics and through the incidental destruction of transportation routes and vehicles.

The famines that plagued eastern Europe between andfor example, were chiefly the result of human rather than natural causes, as the warring countries of the region interfered with and often prevented the production and distribution of basic foodstuffs. The deliberate destruction of crops and food supplies became a common tactic of war in the 19th century, employed by both attacking and defending armies.

Famines generally strike in poor countries; they have been endemic in some sub-Saharan African countries and widespread in South Asia. But they are not totally unknown to prosperous industrialized countries. In —45, for instance, a famine struck the Netherlands with ferocity.

Over the course of centuries, rulers and governments have managed, mismanaged, documented, and analyzed famines in numerous ways. An early concern with famines appears in an ancient Indian treatise on statecraft, the Artha-shastraby the Hindu statesman and philosopher Kautilya.

The British government wrote the first modern codification of responses to famine during its occupation of India. The highly detailed Indian Famine Code of classified situations of food scarcity according to a scale of intensity, and it laid out a series of steps that governments were obligated to take in the event of a famine.

Despite the development of many detailed antifamine programs, famines have persisted. One reason for this is that until the s the underlying causes of most famines were poorly understood. Despite some awareness to the contrary through the ages, there has been an overwhelming tendency to think that famines are primarily caused by a decline in food production. The result has been that famines that are not accompanied by such shortages are usually not recognized as famines until well after they have occurred.

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Facebook Twitter. Give Feedback External Websites. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article requires login. External Websites. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. See Article History. Children from famine-stricken southern Somalia waiting in line at a feeding centre in Mogadishu, Starving Irish people raiding a government potato store; drawing from the Illustrated London NewsJune Population changes in Ireland from toincluding those resulting from the Irish Potato Famine.

Watch a report on a famine, caused largely by ethnic strife, in South Sudan in Get exclusive access to content from our First Edition with your subscription. Subscribe today.That benefits a Packer's crew depending more on their running game since starting QB Hundley in place of star QB Rogers.

Campanella is on an 8-2 NFL streak and serves up his "Attack Dog" this Sunday. Get the better team AND the pointsThis soccer match takes place in Switzerland on Sunday morning. I think we see a 2-1 score so take the over, which is set at 2. NBA plays are 10-2 and college basketball is 11-4. Teddy is coming off yet another winning NFL Report in Week 13.

The first meeting between these two teams was a legitimate shootout, a 31-30 Raiders victory that flew Over the total by two touchdowns. Even before the late penalty shenanigans that allowed Oakland to steal the game with an untimed down on their final play, the Over was never in doubt. The two teams combined to gain a full 7.

We can expect both defenses to struggle getting stops in the rematch as well. They allowed 38 points, 30 first downs and total 488 yards, all season highs.

Even with Darrelle Revis in the mix, this is NOT a good pass defense right now, bad news against Derek Carr and company. And even without Amari Cooper, the Raiders offense will get a boost with the return of Michael Crabtree from his one game suspension. He brings an energy and brings a personality that kind of gets guys going a little bit and makes it fun to be out there.

It's certainly awesome to have his talent back.

What Are the Main Causes of Famine?

Both teams rank in the bottom quartile of the NFL in sack percentage, which means that both Derek Carr and Alex Smith should have some clean pockets to throw from. On a beautiful sunny December afternoon at Arrowhead, we should expect a Shootout. Edges - Browns: 10-2 ATS home versus non-conference foes in the first of consecutive home games Packers: 2-9 ATS versus sub. Thank you and good luck as always.

FREE KEY SYSTEM: Teams are 55-38-1 ATS since 2002 after a game where the longest rush allowed in the previous game was 72 yards or more. The Titans are dead-locked with the Jaguars for the AFC South lead and face a tough two game road trip in the Pacific Northwest, facing the Cardinals this week and then at San Francisco.

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